When it comes to chemistry, boiling point is a crucial property that determines the state of matter, whether it is a gas, liquid or solid. Different compounds have different boiling points, and this can depend on various factors such as intermolecular forces, molecular weight, and polarizability. In this article, we will explore which of the following compounds has the highest boiling point.

Before we delve deeper, let us understand what boiling point is. Boiling point is defined as the temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas at a constant pressure. It is also known as the saturation temperature or the boiling temperature. The boiling point of a compound is determined by the strength of the intermolecular forces that hold the molecules together.

The compounds we will be discussing are water, ethanol, methane, and helium. Water is a polar molecule, meaning it has a partially positive and partially negative charge. Ethanol also has a polar nature due to its OH functional group, while methane and helium are non-polar molecules with no dipole moment.

Water has the highest boiling point among the mentioned compounds due to its strong hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom in a molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen, in another molecule. This creates a strong intermolecular force and makes it harder for the molecules to escape into the gas phase. Hence, water has a boiling point of 100°C.

Ethanol has a boiling point of 78°C due to the presence of hydrogen bonding, but the strength of the intermolecular forces is weaker than that of water. Methane, which is a non-polar molecule, has a boiling point of -161°C due to the weak van der Waals forces between the molecules. Helium, another non-polar molecule, has an extremely low boiling point of -268.9°C since it does not experience any significant intermolecular forces.

In conclusion, the compound which has the highest boiling point is water due to its strong intermolecular forces caused by hydrogen bonding. Ethanol has a lower boiling point than water, while methane and helium have significantly lower boiling points due to their non-polar nature. Understanding the boiling point of different compounds is essential for various applications in industries such as chemistry, pharmaceuticals, and materials science.

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